---
title: "Functional status scale for pediatric TBI"
output:
rmarkdown::html_vignette:
number_section: true
bibliography: references.bib
csl: ccm.csl
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{Functional status scale for pediatric TBI}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
%\VignetteEncoding{UTF-8}
---
```{r label = "setup", include = FALSE}
knitr::opts_chunk$set(collapse = TRUE)
```
This vignette has two purposes:
1. Provide a detailed data analysis example for the provided data, and
2. a reproduction/extension of @bennett2016functional.
It will be based on the PEDALFAST data set. Most of the R code will be
echoed in this vignette. The full .Rmd file, including the in line code, can
be found at:
```{r label = "system-location-of-vignette", eval = FALSE}
system.file("doc", "fss.Rmd", package = "pedalfast.data")
```
The needed namespaces to reproduce this vignette are:
```{r label = "namespaces"}
library(pedalfast.data)
library(knitr)
library(qwraps2)
library(ggplot2)
options(qwraps2_markup = 'markdown')
data(pedalfast, pedalfast_metadata)
```
There are some data manipulation steps that need to be taken before getting
into the manuscript.
**GCS Using**: Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) assessments occurred in the emergency
department (ED) and/or the ICU. For the purposes of this work we will us the
GCS assessed in the emergency department as primary and the ICU value if the
ED value is unknown.
```{r label = "build-gcsusing"}
# gather all the gcs values form the ed.
gcs_ed_vars <- grep("^gcs(?!yn).*ed$", names(pedalfast), value = TRUE, perl = TRUE)
gcs_ed_vars
# create a set of gcs _using variables. This could be done using the
# data.table::fcoalesce function. Base R code is provided here:
for(j in gcs_ed_vars) {
pedalfast[[sub("ed$", "_using", j)]] <-
ifelse(is.na(pedalfast[[j]]), pedalfast[[ sub("ed$", "icu", j) ]], pedalfast[[j]])
}
# verify there are no missing values
stopifnot(!any(is.na(pedalfast$gcs_using)))
```
**GCS Categories**
GCS values provided in the pedalfast data set are integer values. These
values are mapped to specific categorical interpretations. GCS is commonly
used as both a numeric value and a categorical value. We will create
variables here with the GCS categories documented in the metadata.
```{r}
pedalfast$gcseye_using_cat <- gcs_as_factor(pedalfast$gcseye_using, "eye")
pedalfast$gcsmotor_using_cat <- gcs_as_factor(pedalfast$gcsmotor_using, "motor")
pedalfast$gcsverbal_using_cat <- gcs_as_factor(pedalfast$gcsverbal_using, "verbal")
```
**GCS Severe**
Severe TBI will be defined as a GCS of eight or less.
```{r}
pedalfast$severetbi <- as.integer(pedalfast$gcs_using <= 8)
```
**FSS Total**
The FSS total score is the sum of the six fss subscales.
```{r}
fsscols <- grep("^fss", names(pedalfast), value = TRUE)
fsscols
pedalfast$fsstotal <- rowSums(pedalfast[, fsscols])
summary(pedalfast$fsstotal)
```
Looking into the missing values, most are associated with hospital
disposition of mortality.
```{r}
with(pedalfast, table(hospdisposition, is.na(fsstotal)))
```
The FSS total score can be placed into categories:
```{r}
pedalfast$fsstotal_cat <- fss_as_factor(pedalfast$fsstotal, long_label = FALSE)
pedalfast$fsstotal_cat2 <- fss_as_factor(pedalfast$fsstotal, long_label = TRUE)
table(pedalfast$fsstotal_cat)
table(pedalfast$fsstotal_cat2)
fss_labeller <- function(x) {
x <- sub("fssmental", "Mental", x)
x <- sub("fsssensory", "Sensory", x)
x <- sub("fsscommun", "Communication", x)
x <- sub("fssmotor", "Motor", x)
x <- sub("fssfeeding", "Feeding", x)
x <- sub("fssresp", "Respiratory", x)
x
}
```
# Abstract:
**Objective:** Describe hospital discharge functional outcome in pediatric
traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients via discharge Functional Status Scale
(FSS). Determine and report any associations between FSS and age, injury
mechanism, neurological exam, imaging, and other predictors of outcome.
**Design:** Prospective observational cohort study.
**Setting:** Multiple American College of Surgeons level 1 Pediatric Trauma
Centers.
**Patients:** Children under 18 years of age who were admitted to an
intensive car unit (ICU) with acute TBI and underwent either a surgical or
critical care intervention within initial twenty-four hours, or in-hospital
mortality.
**Interventions:** None.
**Measurements and Main Results:** Hospital discharge FSS is the primary
outcome. A majority,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$severetbi, show_denom = "always"), ",") `
had severe TBI (admission GCS 3-8). Overall in-hospital mortality was
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$hospdisposition == "Mortality", show_denom = "always"), ";") `
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1), n_perc(hospdisposition == "Mortality", show_denom = "always")) `
among those with severe TBI. Hospital discharge FSS had an inverse
relationship with GCS: for each one unit increase in admission GCS the
expected FSS total score decreases by
`r m <- lm(fsstotal ~ -gcs_using, data = pedalfast); frmtci(c(coef(m), confint(m)), show_level = TRUE) `
units.
# Introduction
Approximately 2,200 pediatric-deaths and 35,000 pediatric-hospitalizations
per annum are attributed to acute trauma brain injury (TBI). [@Faul2010]
Pediatric non-fatal TBI are commonly associated with new morbidities such as
motor, communication, behavioral, or social impairments. [@Frieden2014]
Trials of acute interventions for children with TBI are hampered by a lack of
relevant, easily administered functional outcome measures that can be used at
the time of intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital discharge. Easily
administered instruments such as the Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category
(PCPC) and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category (POPC) lack the
sensitivity and precision required for studies of
interventions.[@Fiser1992;@Fiser2000;@Fiser2000a;@Bennett2015c] Other
instruments such as the Glasgow Outcome Scale - Extended, Pediatric version
(GOS-E Peds)[@Beers2012] and the King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head
Injury (KOSCHI)[@Crouchman2001] are focused on patient function after return
to home and community.
Improvements in the care of critically ill children have decreased ICU
mortality to less than 5%, but survivors often have significant functional
impairment.[@Namachivayam2010;@Slonim2010;@Bone2014;@Pollack2014a;@Choong2015]
In response to the need for a reliable, rapid measure of functional outcome
appropriate for in-hospital use, the NIH-funded Collaborative Pediatric
Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN)[@CPCCRN] developed and validated the
Functional Status Scale (FSS).[@Pollack2009;@Pollack2014]
The FSS has 6 domains: Mental, Sensory, Communication, Motor, Feeding, and
Respiratory. The scale in each domain is from 1 (no dysfunction) to 5 (very
severe dysfunction), with a total score from 6 (normal) to 30 (very severe
dysfunction in all domains). Appendix Table 1 shows the 6 domains and the 5
levels within each domain. The FSS is designed to be collected from hospital
providers (e.g., a patient's primary nurse), supplemented by medical records
when necessary.[@Pollack2015] The FSS correlates with a gold-standard
adaptive behavior instrument, the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS
II), with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.60. It also discriminates
moderate and severe decrements in adaptive behavior well (areas under the
curve 0.82 and 0.86, respectively).[@Pollack2009] Interrater reliability is
excellent: the intraclass correlation coefficient is 0.95 for the six domain
scores.[@Pollack2009] Importantly, Pollack et al. have validated that a FSS
score at hospital discharge ≥ 3 points above a child's pre-hospitalization
baseline represents newly impaired functional status or "new morbidity" in
survivors of critical illness or injury.[@Pollack2014a]
However, the studies of the FSS to date have analyzed heterogeneous cohorts
of critically ill children, and no study of children with TBI to date has
reported FSS scores. The distributions of hospital discharge FSS and change
in FSS from baseline to hospital discharge in critically injured children
with TBI are unknown. We conducted this multi-center prospective
observational study to accomplish the following aims: 1) to describe FSS and
change in FSS from baseline in children admitted to an ICU after TBI and 2)
to determine any associations between discharge FSS and age, injury
mechanism, neurological exam findings, brain computed tomography (CT) findings,
and other predictors of outcome in children with
TBI.[@Maas2005;@Maas2013;@Liesemer2014;@Tasker2014c]
# Methods
_Study Sites and Subject Enrollment_
This prospective cohort study was conducted at multiple American College of
Surgeons (ACS) freestanding level I Pediatric Trauma Centers. Each site has
between 2000 and 3000 Pediatric ICU admissions per year. We reviewed the ICU
census at each site daily, checked ICU admission logbooks, and reviewed ICU
screening logs to ensure that all eligible children were observed. Because
the study was granted a waiver of consent at all sites (see _Regulatory
Approvals_ below), all eligible patients were enrolled.
_Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria_
We prospectively identified all patients under 18 years of age admitted to an
ICU with a diagnosis of acute TBI and either a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score
at most 12 or a neurosurgical procedure (intracranial pressure [ICP] monitor,
external ventricular drain (EVD), craniotomy, or craniectomy) within the
first twenty-four hours of admission. We excluded surviving patients
discharged from the ICU within twenty-four hours of ICU admission without an
intervention (invasive or noninvasive ventilation, ICP monitoring, any
operative procedure, an arterial or central venous catheter, or osmolar
therapy). We categorized TBI severity using the ED GCS: 3-8 = severe, 9-12 =
moderate, 13-15 = mild. For the
`r sum(is.na(pedalfast$gcsed)) `
patients who did not have a GCS measured in the ED (direct admissions to the
ICU), we used the GCS measured on ICU admission. Children with mild TBI who
did not receive a neurosurgical procedure in the first 24 hours were
excluded.
_Prospective Data Collection_
For variables such as GCS that might be documented by multiple providers or
in multiple locations in the medical record, we defined a hierarchy of data
sources. In the Emergency Department (ED), we used the following data sources
in order of priority: Trauma Surgery attending physician note, then
Neurosurgery attending physician note, then ED attending physician note.
Similarly, in the ICU we used the ICU attending physician note, then ICU
advanced practice provider note, then ICU resident note, then ICU nursing
flowsheet. At the time of each GCS assessment, the study team recorded
whether the patient was intubated, sedated, chemically paralyzed, or had
obstruction to eye assessment.[@NTDSurl]
We captured the time and text report of the first brain CT study formally
read by a PCH or CHCO pediatric radiologist. The presence or absence of CT
features (e.g. subdural hematoma [SDH]) were extracted from the CT report by
the study team.
_Functional Status Scale Collection_
We categorized FSS scores using the rubric developed by Pollack et
al.[@Pollack2014a] That 5-category rubric is designed to follow the
categories of the PCPC/POPC system, but has greater granularity within each
category.[@Fiser2000;@Pollack2014]
_Statistical Methods_
Means are shown ± standard deviation (SD). Medians are shown with
interquartile range (IQR). We tested two-sample differences in FSS using
Student's t-test assuming unequal variances. To estimate variation of FSS
scores within categories of admission GCS, we used the approach of Pollack et
al. and calculated the width ("dispersion") of the 10^th^ to 90^th^
percentile range.[@Pollack2014a] To test the FSS-age, FSS-mechanism, and
FSS-GCS relationships, we fit three separate linear regression models. Age
(in years) and GCS were fit as continuous variables and injury mechanism as a
categorical variable. Scatterplots are shown as "bubble charts." The area of
each point is directly proportional to the number of patients with that
particular combination of X and Y values.[@Tufte2001] We grouped IVH and SAH
to be consistent with the Rotterdam CT scoring
system[@Maas2005;@Liesemer2014]
Data analysis was conducted in R version
`r paste0(paste(R.version[c("major", "minor")], collapse = "."), ".") `
[@Rbase]
_Regulatory Approvals_
This study was granted a waiver of consent by the institutional review boards at
both institutions.
# Results
## Prospective Cohort
Our cohort consists of
`r nrow(pedalfast) `
patients. Known or suspected abuse accounted for
`r n_perc(pedalfast$injurymech == "Known or suspected abuse") `
of the hospitalizations. The "Other" injury mechanism category included
injuries related to penetrating projectiles, all-terrain vehicles, horseback
riding, and others. At the time of GCS assessment
`r n_perc(pedalfast$gcsett_using) `
were intubated,
`r n_perc(pedalfast$gcssed_using) `
were under the influence of sedation medication, and
`r n_perc(pedalfast$gcspar_using) `
were chemically paralyzed.
Most of the patients,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$severetbi, show_denom = "always"), ",") `
had severe TBI (Appendix Table 2). Hospital mortality was
`r n_perc(pedalfast$hospdisposition == "Mortality", show_denom = "always") `
overall and
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1), n_perc(hospdisposition == "Mortality", show_denom = "always")) `
among those with severe TBI. The "Other
## Hospital Discharge Functional Status Scale
Many children who survived to hospital discharge had impaired functional
status.
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality"), n_perc(pedalfast$fsstotal >= 8, na_rm = TRUE)) `
had at least "mildly abnormal" functional status and
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality"), n_perc(pedalfast$fsstotal >= 10, na_rm = TRUE)) `
had at least "moderately abnormal" functional status (Table
2).[@Pollack2014a] The mean ± standard deviation for the total FSS, for those with a
known FSS, was
`r with(subset(pedalfast, !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
and the median (IQR) total FSS was
`r with(subset(pedalfast, !is.na(fsstotal)), paste0(median_iqr(fsstotal), ".")) `
Among patients with sever TBI and known FSS total,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), n_perc(fsstotal >= 8, show_denom = "always")) `
had at least "mildly abnormal" functional status and
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), n_perc(fsstotal >= 10)) `
had at least "moderately abnormal" functional status (Appendix Table 3).
For patients with severe TBI, the mean ± standard deviation total FSS was
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
and the median (IQR) total FSS was
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), paste0(median_iqr(fsstotal), ".")) `
## Functional Status Scale Domains
```{r label = "dysfunction_summary"}
some_dysfunction <-
lapply(grep("^fss(?!total)", names(pedalfast), perl = TRUE, value = TRUE),
function(x) {
rtn <-
data.frame(variable = x,
p = mean(na.omit(pedalfast[[x]]) > 1))
rtn$plb <- paste0(frmt(rtn$p * 100), "% (", sub("^fss(\\w)", "\\U\\1", x, perl = TRUE), ")")
rtn
})
some_dysfunction <- do.call(rbind, some_dysfunction)
some_dysfunction
# when at least one of the fss scales reported a value of 2, and 2 is the max
# value across all six sclaes, the most common scale with a value of 2 is:
fss_matrix <- pedalfast[, grep("^fss(?!total)", names(pedalfast), perl = TRUE, value = TRUE)]
fss_matrix <- suppressWarnings(cbind(fss_matrix, max = apply(fss_matrix, 1, max, na.rm = TRUE)))
fss_matrix <- fss_matrix[fss_matrix$max > -Inf, ]
score_mode <-
lapply(2:5, function(i) apply(fss_matrix[fss_matrix$max == i, ], 2, function(x) sum(x == i, na.rm = TRUE)))
score_mode <- do.call(rbind, score_mode)
score_mode
colSums(score_mode)
apply(score_mode[, -7], 1, which.max)
```
Functional impairment at hospital discharge was present for all of the six
FSS domains (Figure 1). Within each domain, the percent of survivors with
some dysfunction (domain score > 1) ranged from
`r subset(some_dysfunction, p == min(some_dysfunction$p))[["plb"]] `
to
`r paste0(subset(some_dysfunction, p == max(some_dysfunction$p))[["plb"]], ".") `
When some dysfunction was observed,
`r sub("^fss", "", names(which.max(colSums(score_mode[, -7])))) `
was the most likely to be the domain with the most dysfunction with the
domains
`r gsub("fss", "", paste( colnames(score_mode)[-7][order(colSums(score_mode[, -7]), decreasing = TRUE)][-1], collapse = ", ")) `
being the most next most common, in descending order.
When there is some observed dysfunction, and the maximal rating within any
domain was "mild," the most common domain was
`r paste(sub("fss", "", names(which(score_mode[1, -7] == max(score_mode[1, -7])))), collapse = " and ") `
For a maximal rating of "moderate," the most common domain with the rating
was
`r paste(sub("fss", "", names(which(score_mode[2, -7] == max(score_mode[2, -7])))), collapse = " and ") `
The most common domains for maximal ratings of "severe" and "very severe"
were
`r paste(sub("fss", "", names(which(score_mode[3, -7] == max(score_mode[3, -7])))), collapse = " and ") `
and
`r paste(sub("fss", "", names(which(score_mode[4, -7] == max(score_mode[4, -7])))), collapse = " and ") `
respectively.
## Discharge FSS by Age, Injury Mechanism
```{r}
fit <- lm(fsstotal ~ injurymech + I(age / 365.25) - 1, data = pedalfast)
summary(fit)
summary(aov(fit))
fsstotal_lm_cis <- qwraps2::frmtci(cbind(coef(fit), confint(fit)), show_level = TRUE)
fsstotal_lm_cis
```
We examined associations of age and injury mechanism with discharge FSS via
linear regression and found no statistical evidence to support an association
between patient age and discharge FSS: expected change in discharge FSS for
each year of age
`r paste0(fsstotal_lm_cis[grepl("\\Wage\\W", names(fsstotal_lm_cis))], ".") `
Discharge FSS varied widely among those children injured by motor vehicle
traffic, child abuse, and other mechanisms
`r paste0(extract_fpvalue(fit), ".") `
The mean ± standard deviation known discharge FSS for children injured in falls was
`r with(subset(pedalfast, injurymech == "Fall" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
compared to
`r with(subset(pedalfast, injurymech == "Traffic" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
for children injured in traffic incidents,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, injurymech == "Known or suspected abuse" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
for children injured in known or suspected abuse incidents, and
`r with(subset(pedalfast, injurymech == "Other" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
for children injured by other mechanisms.
## Discharge FSS and Admission GCS
```{r}
fit <- lm(fsstotal ~ gcs_using, data = pedalfast)
fss_by_gcs_ci <- qwraps2::frmtci(cbind(coef(fit), confint(fit)), show_level = TRUE)
mean_fss_by_gcs <-
aggregate(fsstotal ~ gcs_using, data = pedalfast, FUN = mean_sd, show_n = "never", na_rm = TRUE)
mean_fss_by_gcsm <-
aggregate(fsstotal ~ gcsmotor_using, data = pedalfast, FUN = mean_sd, show_n = "never", na_rm = TRUE)
```
The most common FSS score at hospital discharge was
`r names(table(pedalfast$fsstotal))[table(pedalfast$fsstotal) == max( table(pedalfast$fsstotal))] `
and that score was found in children with every value of admission GCS
(Figure 2). The mean ± standard deviation discharge FSS ranged from
`r subset(mean_fss_by_gcs, gcs_using == 15)[["fsstotal"]] `
for a GCS of 15 to
`r subset(mean_fss_by_gcs, gcs_using == 3)[["fsstotal"]] `
for a GCS of 3. The mean discharge FSS ranged from
`r subset(mean_fss_by_gcsm, gcsmotor_using == 6)[["fsstotal"]] `
for a GCS-Motor of 6 to
`r subset(mean_fss_by_gcsm, gcsmotor_using == 1)[["fsstotal"]] `
for a GCS-Motor of 1.
The variation in discharge FSS within GCS categories was higher for more
severe injuries than milder injuries: 10^th^ to 90^th^ percentile range
(width) =
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1), diff(quantile(fsstotal, c(0.10, 0.90), na.rm = TRUE, names = FALSE))) `
for for severe TBI and only
`r with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi != 1), diff(quantile(fsstotal, c(0.10, 0.90), na.rm = TRUE, names = FALSE))) `
for mild or moderate TBI. To be included in this study, patients with "mild"
TBI by GCS (13-15) had to be admitted to an ICU and receive a neurosurgical
procedure in the first 24 hours. As expected, we found an inverse
relationship between discharge FSS and admission GCS total and motor scores
(Figure 2). Using linear regression, we estimated that for each 1 point
higher admission GCS score, a patient's discharge FSS changes by
`r fss_by_gcs_ci["gcs_using"] `
points,
`r paste0(qwraps2::extract_fpvalue(fit), ".") `
## Discharge FSS and ICU Pupillary Reactivity
Most,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$puplrcticu == "Both Reactive", na_rm = TRUE), ",") `
patients had bilaterally reactive pupils on admission to the ICU. Of the
`r sum(pedalfast$puplrcticu == "Both Fixed", na.rm = TRUE) `
who had bilaterally fixed pupils on admission to the ICU,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, puplrcticu == "Both Fixed"), n_perc(hospdisposition == "Mortality")) `
died. Among survivors, the mean ± standard deviation discharge FSS ranged from
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & puplrcticu == "Both Reactive" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
for those with bilaterally reactive pupils on ICU admission to
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & puplrcticu == "Both Fixed" & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
for those with bilaterally fixed pupils on ICU admission.
## Discharge FSS and Admission CT Features
```{r}
summary(pedalfast[, grep("^ct", names(pedalfast))])
pedalfast$anyblood <- with(pedalfast, as.integer(ctintraparhem + ctsubarchhem + ctintraventhem + ctsubhematoma + ctepihematoma > 0))
```
`r n_perc(pedalfast$ctskullfrac, show_denom = "never", na_rm = TRUE) `
patients had a skull fracture and most,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$anyblood, na_rm = TRUE, show_denom = "never"), ",") `
had at least one type of intracranial hemorrhage/hematoma. As expected,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, ctepihematoma == 1), n_perc(fsstotal < 8, show_denom = "always", na_rm = TRUE)) `
children with epidural hematoma (EDH) had good functional status at
hospital discharge (Figure 3) mean ± standard deviation FSS without EDH
`r with(subset(pedalfast, ctepihematoma == 0 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
versus
`r with(subset(pedalfast, ctepihematoma == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
with EDH,
`r paste0(frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ ctepihematoma, data = pedalfast)$p.value), ".") `
Children with subdural (SDH), intraventricular (IVH), subarachnoid (SAH), or
intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) had more variable discharge functional
status (Figure 3). Multiple hemorrhage types were often,
`r with(pedalfast, paste0(n_perc(ctepihematoma + ctsubhematoma + ctintraparhem + ctsubarchhem + ctintraventhem > 1, na_rm = TRUE), ",")) `
present.
The surviving patient with the worst functional status, for example, had SDH,
SAH, IVH, and IPH.
Surviving children with either IVH or SAH had higher discharge FSS scores,
mean ± standard deviation
`r with(subset(pedalfast, (ctintraventhem == 1 | ctsubarchhem == 1) & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
than those who did not
`r with(subset(pedalfast,!(ctintraventhem == 1 | ctsubarchhem == 1) & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)) `
`r paste0("(", frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ (ctintraventhem == 1 | ctsubarchhem == 1), data = pedalfast)$p.value), ").") `
CT findings of cerebral edema,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$ctce, na_rm = TRUE), ",") `
and those consistent with local or diffuse intracranial hypertension, such as
basilar cistern compression,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$ctcompress, na_rm = TRUE), ",") `
and midline shift,
`r paste0(n_perc(pedalfast$ctmidlineshift, na_rm = TRUE), ",") `
were not uncommon. Discharge FSS scores for patients with cerebral edema
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctce == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
was higher than the mean discharge FSS cores for patients without cerebral
edema,
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctce == 0 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
`r paste0("(", frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ ctce, data = pedalfast)$p.value), ").") `
Similarly, patients with basilar cistern compression had higher mean
discharged FSS cores than those who did not:
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctcompress == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
verses
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctcompress == 0 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
`r paste0("(", frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ ctcompress, data = pedalfast)$p.value), ").") `
Mean discharged FSS for midline shift
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctmidlineshift == 1 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
is not statistically different from the mean discharged FSS for patients
without midline shift
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, ctmidlineshift == 0 & !is.na(fsstotal)), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
`r paste0("(", frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ ctmidlineshift, data = pedalfast)$p.value), ").") `
Patients who did and did not have these CT findings had widely
varying discharge FSS values, from normal to severely impaired (Figure 5).
Nearly all,
`r paste0(with(subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 0), n_perc(anyblood, na_rm = TRUE)), ",") `
patients with mild TBI had at least one type of intracranial hemorrhage.
## Discharge FSS and New Technology Dependence
More severely injured children may not be able to safely take adequate
nutrition by mouth and may require placement of a new gastrostomy tube. Among
survivors who received a new gastrostomy tube
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality"), n_perc(newgastyn)) `
during their acute hospitalization, the mean
discharge FSS was much higher:
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, !is.na(fsstotal) & hospdisposition != "Mortality" & newgastyn == 1), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
verses
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, !is.na(fsstotal) & hospdisposition != "Mortality" & newgastyn == 0), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ").") `
`r frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ newgastyn, data = pedalfast, subset = hospdisposition != "Mortality")$p.value) `
(Figure 4).
In children with severe TBI,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & severetbi == 1), n_perc(newgastyn, na_rm = TRUE, show_denom = "always")) `
children had a new gastrostomy tube and of these, the mean discharge FSS was
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & severetbi == 1 & newgastyn == 1), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ")") `
verses
`r paste0("(", with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & severetbi == 1 & newgastyn == 0), mean_sd(fsstotal, na_rm = TRUE, show_n = "never")), ")") `
in those who did not,
`r paste0(frmtp(t.test(fsstotal ~ newgastyn, data = pedalfast, subset = hospdisposition != "Mortality" & severetbi == 1)$p.value), ".") `
The distributions of discharge FSS values
between patients who did and did not have a new gastrostomy tube separated
well graphically: only those without new gastrostomy tubes had normal or
mildly abnormal discharge FSS scores (Figure 4). Profoundly injured survivors
may require a new tracheostomy. Of the
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality"), n_perc(newtrachyn, show_denom = "always")) `
children who received a new tracheostomy,
`r with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & newtrachyn == 1), n_perc(newgastyn)) `
also received a gastrostomy. The mean ± discharge FSS was
`r paste0(with(subset(pedalfast, hospdisposition != "Mortality" & newtrachyn == 1), mean_sd(fsstotal)), ".") `
# References
# Figures
**Figure 1:** FSS Domain Scores at Hospital Discharge. Histograms of
Functional Status Scores (FSS) domain scores at hospital discharge. A score
of 1 represents no dysfunction, 2 is mild, 3 is moderate, 4 is severe, and 5
is very severe dysfunction.
```{r label = "figure1", warning = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7}
# data.table::melt or tidyr::pivot_longer would make this data step much easier
figure1_data <-
lapply(grep("^fss(?!total)", names(pedalfast), perl = TRUE, value = TRUE),
function(x) data.frame(variable = x, value = pedalfast[, x]))
figure1_data <- do.call(rbind, figure1_data)
ggplot(figure1_data) +
aes(x = value, y = (..count..)/sum(..count..)) +
geom_bar() +
facet_wrap( ~ variable) +
theme_classic(base_size = 18) +
ylab("") +
scale_y_continuous(labels = scales::percent)
```
**Figure 2:** Discharge FSS by Admission GCS. FSS = Functional Status Scale;
GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale. A FSS score of six represents no dysfunction.
```{r label = "figure2", warning = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7}
ggplot(pedalfast) +
aes(x = gcs_using, y = fsstotal) +
stat_sum(aes(size = ..n..), alpha = 0.2) +
scale_size_area(breaks = c(5, 10, 15), "Count", max_size = 7) +
stat_smooth(method = "lm", formula = y ~ x, linewidth = 0.5, alpha = 0.4, level = 0.95, color = "black", linetype = 2) +
scale_x_continuous(breaks = seq(3, 15, 1)) +
scale_y_continuous(breaks = c(6, 10, 15, 20, 25), limits = c(5, 25)) +
xlab("Glasgow Coma Scale") +
ylab("Discharge FSS") +
theme_classic(base_size = 16) +
theme(legend.position.inside = c(0.9, 0.9))
```
**Figure 3:** Discharge FSS by Intracranial Hemorrhage Type. A FSS score of
6 represents no dysfunction.
```{r label = "figure3", warning = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7}
figure3_data <-
lapply(grep("^ct.+(hem|toma)$", names(pedalfast), perl = TRUE, value = TRUE),
function(x) data.frame(studyid = pedalfast[["studyid"]],
fsstotal = pedalfast[["fsstotal"]],
variable = x,
value = pedalfast[, x]))
figure3_data <- do.call(rbind, figure3_data)
figure3_data$variable <-
factor(figure3_data$variable,
levels = c("ctintraparhem", "ctsubarchhem", "ctintraventhem", "ctsubhematoma", "ctepihematoma"),
labels = c("Intraparenchymal\nHemorrhage", "Subarachnoid\nHemorrhage", "Intraventricular\nHemorrhage", "Subdural Hematoma", "Epidural Hematoma"))
ggplot(data = figure3_data) +
aes(x = fsstotal, fill = as.factor(value)) +
geom_bar() +
facet_wrap( ~ variable) +
scale_fill_manual(name = "Hemorrhage", labels = c("No", "Yes"), values = c("grey", "black")) +
xlim(5.5,30.5) +
xlab("Discharge FSS") +
ylab("Count") +
theme_classic(base_size=16) +
theme(legend.position = "bottom")
```
**Figure 4:** Discharge FSS by New Gastrostomy Status. Legend: FSS =
Functional Status Scale; G-Tube = gastrostomy tube; TBI = traumatic brain
injury. A FSS score of 6 represents no dysfunction.
```{r label = "figure4", warning = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7}
figure4_data <-
rbind(cbind(cp = "All TBI", pedalfast[, c("fsstotal", "newgastyn")]),
cbind(cp = "Non-Severe TBI", subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 0, c("fsstotal", "newgastyn"))),
cbind(cp = "Severe TBI", subset(pedalfast, severetbi == 1, c("fsstotal", "newgastyn"))))
figure4_data$cp <- factor(figure4_data$cp, levels = c("All TBI", "Non-Severe TBI", "Severe TBI"))
ggplot(data = figure4_data) +
aes(x = fsstotal, fill = newgastyn) +
geom_histogram(binwidth = 1, bins = seq(5.5, 30.5, by = 1)) +
scale_fill_manual(name = "New G-Tube", values = c("gray", "black")) +
xlim(5.5,30.5) +
xlab("Discharge FSS") +
ylab("Count") +
theme_classic(base_size=20) +
theme(legend.position = "bottom") +
facet_wrap( ~ cp)
```
**Figure 5:** Discharge FSS by CT imaging. The violin plots show the
distribution of FSS scores, the wider the plot the more common the FSS value
is. The point shown on each plot is the mean discharge FSS score.
```{r label = "figure5", warning = FALSE, fig.width = 7, fig.height = 7}
ggplot(data = subset(figure3_data, !is.na(value))) +
aes(y = fsstotal, x = factor(value, c(0, 1), c("No", "Yes"))) +
geom_violin() +
stat_summary(fun = mean, geom = "point") +
xlab("") +
ylab("Discharge FSS") +
facet_wrap( ~ variable) +
theme_classic(base_size=16) +
theme(legend.position = "bottom")
```
# Tables
**Table 1** Patient and Injury Characteristics. Summary statistics are
either mean ± standard deviation, or n (%).
```{r label = "table1", results = 'asis'}
qs <- list(
"Patient Characteristics" =
list("Age (in years)" = ~ mean_sd(age / 365.25),
"Female" = ~ n_perc0(female == 1))
, "Injury Mechanism" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "injurymech"))[[1]]
, "TBI Severity" =
list("GCS = 3" = ~ n_perc0(gcs_using == 3),
"Severe (GCS 3-8)" = ~ n_perc0(gcs_using %in% seq(3, 8)),
"Moderate (GCS 9-12)" = ~ n_perc0(gcs_using %in% seq(9, 12)),
"Mild (GCS 13-15)" = ~ n_perc0(gcs_using %in% seq(13, 15))
)
, "GCS Eye" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "gcseye_using_cat"))[[1]]
, "GCS Verbal" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "gcsverbal_using_cat"))[[1]]
, "GCS Motor" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "gcsmotor_using_cat"))[[1]]
, "Pupil Reactivity on ICU admission" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "puplrcticu"))[[1]]
, "Initial ICU LOS" = list("median (IQR) (days)" = ~ median_iqr(admittoicudc1, na_rm = TRUE, digits = 0))
, "Hospital LOS" = list("median (IQR) (days)" = ~ median_iqr(hosplos, na_rm = TRUE, digits = 0))
, "Hospital Disposition" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "hospdisposition"))[[1]]
)
# NOTE: the levels of Pupil Reactivity in the ICU include "Unknown" which is
# qwraps2::qsummary default label for NA values. A patch is provided here, a
# bug report and feature request for qwraps2 has been posted on github.
names(qs[["Pupil Reactivity on ICU admission"]])[ length( names(qs[["Pupil Reactivity on ICU admission"]]) )] <- "Missing"
# print the summary table
st <-
cbind(summary_table(pedalfast, summaries = qs),
summary_table(pedalfast, summaries = qs, by = "severetbi"))
colnames(st) <-
c("", "Whole Cohort", "Non-severe TBI (GCS > 8)", "Severe TBI (GCS <= 8)")
st
```
**Table 2:** Hospital Discharge FSS
```{r label = "table2", results = "asis"}
qs <- list(
"FSS Total" =
list("median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fsstotal, show_n = "never", na_rm = TRUE, digits = 0),
"mean (standard deviation)" = ~ mean_sd(fsstotal, show_n = "never", na_rm = TRUE, digits = 0))
, "FSS Total - Categorical: n (%)" = qsummary(subset(pedalfast, select = "fsstotal_cat2"))[[1]]
, "FSS Mental" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fssmental, na_rm = TRUE))
, "FSS Motor" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fssmotor, na_rm = TRUE))
, "FSS Sensory" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fsssensory, na_rm = TRUE))
, "FSS Respiratory" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fssresp, na_rm = TRUE))
, "FSS Feeding" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fssfeeding, na_rm = TRUE))
, "FSS Communication" = list("n; Median (IQR)" = ~ median_iqr(fsscommun, na_rm = TRUE))
)
st <-
cbind(summary_table(pedalfast, summaries = qs),
summary_table(pedalfast, summaries = qs, by = "severetbi")
)
colnames(st) <-
c("", "Whole Cohort", "Non-severe TBI (GCS > 8)", "Severe TBI (GCS <= 8)")
st
```
**Appendix Table 1** Functional Status Scale Domains
The FSS has 6 domains: Mental, Sensory, Communication, Motor, Feeding, and Respiratory.
The scale in each domain is from 1 (no dysfunction) to 5 (very severe dysfunction), with
a total score from 6 (normal) to 30 (very severe dysfunction in all domains).
Appendix Table 1 shows the 6 domains and the 5 levels within each domain.
```{r label = 'appendix_table_1', results = "asis"}
appendix_table_1 <-
subset(pedalfast_metadata,
variable %in% grep("^fss(?!total)", pedalfast_metadata$variable, perl = TRUE, value = TRUE))
appendix_table_1 <-
cbind(appendix_table_1, do.call(rbind, strsplit(gsub("\\d,\\ ", "", appendix_table_1$values), split = "\\ \\|\\ ")))
appendix_table_1 <- appendix_table_1[, c("description", as.character(1:5))]
colnames(appendix_table_1) <-
c("",
"Normal (Score = 1)",
"Mild Dysfunction (Score = 2)",
"Moderate Dysfunction (Score = 3)",
"Severely Dysfunction (Score = 4)",
"Severely Dysfunction (Score = 5)")
knitr::kable(appendix_table_1, row.names = FALSE)
```
# R Session Info
```{r label = "session_info"}
sessionInfo()
```